Pap Smear


A Pap smear (or Papanicolaou test) is a screening test to look for abnormal cells on the cervix.  This test was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in the 1940s.  During the test, a speculum is used to visualize the cervix.  Cells are collected from the cervix using small brushes and are then examined under a microscope.  The Pap test can identify precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix.  If these abnormalities are detected, appropriate treatment and follow-up can then be initiated.



Vaginitis is a broad term that covers any illness that causes inflammation of the vagina. Symptoms of vaginitis are common among all women. It is estimated that over one third of all women experience the symptoms of vaginitis at least once in their lives. Luckily, the different types of vaginitis are easily treatable after being diagnosed. This page should answer some of your questions about vaginitis, and also offers tips on how to prevent future infections. 

Uterine Fibroids

There are several different growths that can occur inside the uterus. One of the types is uterine fibroids, a benign (not cancerous) growth that is common among women; occurring in as high as 50-75% of all women. Many women who have uterine fibroids are not aware of them because they can remain small and asymptomatic. However, some can cause problems because of their size, location, and number. This page covers the basics about uterine fibroids and what to expect if you have them. 

Urinary Incontinence

Accidental urine leaks can be embarrassing and difficult to manage. Though leaking is never normal, many women do occasionally leak small amounts of urine, either with a strong urge to go, or with activities like coughing/sneezing or running/jumping. This uncontrolled urine loss is called urinary incontinence. This page covers the basic information about urinary incontinence and its treatment.

Preparing for Surgery

Preparing to have any surgery - whether major or minor - can be a very scary time for any woman. You may have many questions about what to expect and how to deal with it. Every procedure differs a bit, depending on the operation and the woman. However, in order to deal with your feelings about your upcoming procedure, it is important to be informed and knowledgeable about what is to come. This  page covers the basics about what to expect during a surgical procedure and how you can prepare.

Pelvic Support Problems

As women age their bodies and reproductive organs change. During pregnancy these organs stretch and grow, and then must return back to a new "normal" after childbirth. Sometimes women may feel that their pelvic organs are "sagging" or "falling out". These symptoms may be caused by pelvic support problems. This page goes over basic information about pelvic support problems, their causes, and how they can be treated.